Logo.png      GRUB CLI Mode
                       
Edited Saturday, October 2 2010  Document made with KompoZer
This web-page is part of a larger site giving examples of how to install Windows+Ubuntu Linux operating systems 'dual boot' in a computer.  Illustrated Dual Boot HomePage

GRUB's Command Line Interface (CLI) is one of GRUB's most useful and powerful features. GRUB is actually a miniature operating system in its own right and it can take a rich variety of commands and provide useful feedback to the user. GRUB's CLI Mode is one  thing that sets GRUB head and shoulders above all other boot loaders or boot managers.
GNU GRUB is a work in progress and the information in this website is incomplete and may be wrong and/or out of date. Please consult the official GNU GRUB 1.98-r2692 manual.




GNU GRUB version 1.98-1ubuntu7

Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic                                
Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic (recovery mode)
Memory test (memtest86+)
Other operating systems:





Use the up or down arrow keys to select which entry is highlighted. Press enter to boot the selected OS, 'e' to edit the commands before booting, or 'c' for a command-line.
 GNU GRUB Menu
Your computer should automatically boot into GRUB's Menu mode if you had another operating system in the computer before you installed Ubuntu.
The /boot/grub/grub.cfg is the configuration file for the GRUB Menu. It contains the settings which determine the GRUB Menu's appearance and behaviour. You need to have a grub.cfg to have a GRUB Menu. If there is no grub.cfg or if GRUB can't find it, you will be given a CLI mode GRUB prompt instead of a Menu.


How to enter 'CLI Mode'.
Simply press your 'c' key from your GRUB Menu to switch into 'CLI Mode'.

CLI Mode

GNU GRUB version 1.98~1ubuntu7

[ Minimal BASH-like line editing is supported. For the first word, TAB lists possible command completions. Anywhere else TAB lists possible device/file completions. ESC at any time exits. ]


grub> _














GNU GRUB's Command Line Interface. (normally black and white by default)


Keyboard Shortcuts
'ctrl' + 'alt' + 'del'reboot immediately
'c'(from the GRUB menu) = change into CLI mode
'tab'try to guess what the user is trying to type and autocomplete the word 
- works in CLI mode or edit mode - extremely useful
'tab','tab'try to guess what the user is trying to type and offer a list of possibilities - works in CLI mode or edit mode - extremely useful 
'esc'(from CLI or edit mode) =  change to menu mode (main menu)
down arrow(in menu) = move the cursor down a line
up arrow(in menu) = move the cursor up a line
'e'(from the GRUB menu) = enter edit mode (edit the selected entry)
left or right arrow(in edit mode) = move the cursor left or right - to select what to edit
'ctrl' + 'x'(from edit mode) = boot the selected entry
'ctrl' + 'c'(from edit mode) = switch to CLI mode
'Print Screen SysRq'make the BIOS beep



Commands
 INDEX
915resolution acpi

background_image badram blocklist boot
cat chainloader clear
cmp
configfile cpuid crc
date drivemapdump
echo efiemu_loadcoreefiemu_prepare efiemu_unload

exit export
false functional_test

gettext
gptsync

halt handler hashsum



hdparm hello
help hexdump

initrd initrd16 insmod

keystatus kfreebsd kfreebsd_loadenv kfreedsb_module_elf
kfreebsd_module kopenbsd knetbsd

linux linux16 list_env load_env
loadfont loopback ls lsfonts
lsmmap lspcilsmod
md5sum
modulemultiboot multiboot2
normal
normal_exit


parser.grub
parser.rescue parttool password
password_pbkdf2
 play probe pxe_unload
read read_byteread_dword reader.normal
reader.rescue reboot root rmmod
save_env searchserial set
setpci
sha256sum
sha512sum

sleep source

terminal_output terminal_input terminfo

test true
unset usb

vbeinfo vbetest videotest
write_byte write_dwordwrite_word
xnu_devprop_load
xnu_kernel xnu_kernel164 xnu_kext
xnu_kextdir xnu_mkextxnu_ramdisk xnu_resume
xnu_splash xnu_uuid

zfs-bootfs zfsinfo

  


 915resolution
 Usage: 915resolution
 Intel VBE editor
-h, --help
display this help and exit
-u, --usage
display this usage and exit

You probably need to insert the 915resolution module before you can use 915resolution, see insmod.



 
acpi
Useage: acpi [-1 | -2]  [ --exclude=table1,table2|--load-only=table1,table2] filename1 [filename2] [...]
Load host acpi tables and tables specified by arguements
-x,  --exclude Don't load host tables specified by comma separated list
-n, --load-only Load only tables specified by comma separated list
-1, --v1 Expose v1 tables
-2, --v2 Expose v2 and v3 tables
-o, --oemid Set OEMID of RSDP, XSDT and RSDT
-t, --oemtable Set OEMTABLE ID of RSDP, XSDT and RSDT
-r, --oemtablerev
Set OEMTABLE revision of RSDP, XSDT and RSDT
-c, --oemtablecreator  Set creator feild of RSDP, XSDT and RSDT
-d, --oemtablecreatorrev Set creator revision of RSDP, XSDT and RSDT
-e, --no-ebda Don't update EBDA. May fix failures or hangs on some BIOSes, but makes it ineffective with OS not receiving RSDP from GRUB
-h, --help Display this help and exit
-u, --usage Display the usage of this command and exit
  
ACPI is an acronym for 'Advanced Configuration and Power  Interface',  ACPI - Wikipedia link
           


 

background_image

 - Load a background image for the active terminal in one of the following formats : [gfxterm]
  •  [tga] : 24 or 32 bits, RLE or uncompressed.
  •  [jpeg] : (probably only supports DCT-Integer-8bit, 1x1)
  •  [png] : 8-bit depth RGB or RGBA (i.e 3*8=24 bits of 4*8=32bits), Uncompressed or "Deflated", Unfiltered, Non-interlaced.
For example, if your background images are in /boot/grub,
grub> background_image /boot/grub/<tab>
(take a look around in /boot/grub for splashimages by pressing your tab key)

grub> background_image /boot/grub/Windbuchencom.tga
type the first three or so letters of the splashimage you want to load and press 'tab', then press 'enter'.     . . .  be prepared to wait a minute before your splashimage will appear.

For some types of image files we may need to insert a module to enable GRUB to use a particular file format before loading the file. For example, we need to load the jpeg module before loading a .jpg image. See the insmod command.
For image files larger than the default 648x480 we would also probably want to check what screen resolutions we can use first with vbeinfo and set the screen resolution with the set  command. GRUB might only display the top right-hand corner of the image if the image file is too large for the display settings.
It's possible to look at images located anywhere in the file system.

To get rid of a background image and have an empty background so you can see your text properly,
 just type the background_image command without any arguments,
grub> background_image
your background image will disappear!

 For more on background images, see: Splashimages for GRUB2




blocklist

blocklist FILE
 - find a file's physical location on a disk (sectors)
example
grub> blocklist (hd0,3)/boot/grub/stage2
279192+237,279429[0-116]
This command is for finding out the physical location of a file on a disk, in sectors.

A blocklist is useful for describing the physical location of code or data on a disk, especially when this code may be located in 'raw' areas of the disk, not addressed by any file system.

A simple example of a blocklist would be: (hd0)0+1 , that would indicate the beginning of sector 0 (zero), and the space following it for 1 (one) sector.
Very often that's shortened to '(hd0)+1', and the zero in implied. However, when you want to specify a number of sectors that doesn't begin at the start of a device or partition, you need to tell GRUB what sector to start looking at, and the number of sectors following it that you want to refer to. 

Blocklist format is already explained pretty well in the GNU GRUB (Legacy) Manual, 13.3.1 blocklist  - GNU GRUB  Manual 0.97.



badram
Usage: badram ADDR1,MASK1[ADDR2,MASK2[,...]]
declare memory regions as bad ram




boot

 - Actually boot the specified operating system
(You should specify the kernel and module first, then issue the boot command last).
This command is implicit (implied) at the end of grub.cfg menu entries.




bsd

 - Load an openbsd kernel.




cat

cat  FILE
 - Show the contents of a file.
FILE can be an absolute filename or a blocklist

example 1
grub> cat 279192+237
Where: 279192+237 was the location of a file previously determined with the blocklist command.
(This one is a stupid example because it just makes a lot of text scroll up the screen, too fast to read, but it demonstrates one way to use the blocklist command. I'll think of a better example later).

example 2
grub> cat /etc/fstab
The text from your /etc/fstab file should appear should be displayed after you enter this command. 

example 3
grub> cat (hd0,3)/etc/lsb-release
DISTRIB_ID=Ubuntu
DISTRIB_RELEASE=9.04
DISTRIB_CODENAME=jaunty
DISTRIB_DESCRIPZTION="Ubuntu jaunty (development branch)"
This is a useful command for those of us who have a lot of different operating systems. When you think you remember which partition contains the operating system you want to boot, you can query it with this command to confirm your opinion.
It would be faster to use the 'search' command if you know your file system LABELS.

TIP: If you want to use the cat command to read large files, try using the set command and set pager=1 so you can control the text and stop it from scrolling too fast.



chainloader

chainloader FILE
 - chainload a device
 - syntax: chainloader (hd0)

Prepare to boot another boot loader.
[chain] -f, --force : force chainloading, ignoring invalid partition signature (!= 0xaa55).
example:
grub> chainloader (hd0)+1

grub> boot
This boots another boot loader by the code in whatever device or file you specified.
Remember, FILE can be an absolute filename or a blocklist.

This command may not won't work if you specify an empty sector or file, or if the code in that file is corrupted or somehow incompatible. There needs to be some boot loader code in the file or device (sector) you specify.

If it doesn't work, try a different file or sector or try loading the kernel and initrd.img directly.

Here's an example of a chainloader command in action,
grub> chainloader (hd0, <tab>
Possible partitions are:
        Partition hd0,1: Filesystem type ext2, Label KARMIC, Last mofication time 2009-12-23 04:02:13 Wednesday, UUID 6d6af125-7087-4frb6-afbc-14ddeeb465b8
        Partition hd0,2: Filesystem type ext2, Label JAUNTY, Last mofication time 2009-12-25 04:39:45 Friday, UUID 6d6af125-7087-4frb6-afbc-14ddeeb465b8
        Partition hd0,3: Filesystem type ext2, Label INTREPID, Last mofication time 2009-12-25 04:39:45 Friday, UUID 6d6af125-7087-4frb6-afbc-14ddeeb465b8
        Partition hd0,5: Filesystem type ext2, Label HARDY, Last mofication time 2009-12-28 10:577:17 Monday, UUID 6d6af125-7087-4frb6-afbc-14ddeeb465b8
        Partition hd0,6: Unknown filesystem 

grub> chainloader (hd0,2)+1
grub> boot



clear
 When your screen is filled up with text and it's looking rather messy, you can use the clear command to quickly empty it and return you to a fresh, clean blank screen with your grub> _ prompt at the top.



cmp

cmp  FILE1 FILE2  ........................................ -  compares file1 with file2
FILE can be an absolute path and filename or a blocklist.
example 1
grub> cmp 279192+237 279429[0-116]
Compare '
279192+237' and '279429[0-116]':
Differ in size: 121344 [
279192+237], 596329 [279429[0-116]]
Where: 279192+237 and 279429[0-116] were the locations of two files previously determined with the blocklist command.

grub> cmp /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-9-generic
Compare '
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic' and
'
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-9-generic':
Differ in size: 2244464 [
/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic], 2244304 [/boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-9-generic]
The results of comparing an older kernel with a newer one. The cmp command tell us they're different in size, and by exactly how much. If they were identical it would not have given any output.



configfile

configfile FILE ......  
 - load a grub.cfg file - make convenient use of the commands and information already typed into the file
 - You would likely need to use the search command to find a /boot/grub/grub.cfg first.

If successful, GRUB will present the boot menu from the grub.cfg and you can utilize the commands already there to boot any operating system listed.
This will only work if the other operating system's configuration file is compatible with GRUB2.
If not, you should try the chainloader command, or a direct boot approach instead.
 
grub> configfile (hd0,2)/boot/grub/grub.cfg




cpuid

cpuid ............................................................. - Check for CPU features.
Running 'cpuid -h' will list the available CPUID tests.
Currently the only available test is -l  (long-mode) - check for long mode flag.
example use,
grub> cpuid
Check for CPU features

-l, --long-mode       check for long mode flag (default)
-h, --help            display this help and exit
-u, --usage           display the usage of this command and exit


 
 crc
 Usage: crc FILE
 Calculate the crc32 checksum of a file

You probably need to insert the crc module before you can use crc, see insmod.



date
Usage: date [[year-] month-day] [hour:minute[:second]]
Command to display/set current datetime

 This commands tells you the current date and time according to the motherboard's BIOS clock.
example,
grub>  date
2009-12-28 13:10:15 Monday



drivemap
Usage: drivemap -l | -r | [-s] grubdev osdisk
Manage the BIOS drive mappings
-l, --list
show the current mappings
-r, --reset
reset all mappings to the default values
-s, --swap  perform both direct and reverse mappings
-h, --help display this help and exit
-u, --usage display the usage of this command and exit
  


dump

Usage: dump ADDR
 - dump memory
  You probably need to insert the dump module before you can use dump, see insmod.

echo

Usage: echo [-e] [-n] STRING
- Display a line of text
-n do not output the trailing newline
-e  enable interpretation of backslash escapes
-h, --help
display this help and exit
-u, --usage
display the usage of this command and exit
example,
grub> echo echo


exit

The exit command can be used to exit from CLI Mode and  return your to the normal GRUB Menu.
To use it, type the command and then press your enter key twice.





export

export [ENVVAR
 - export an environmental variable



font

font FILE
 -  Specify one or more font files to display.

You need to use fonts which have been made in pff or pf2 file format and compatible with GRUB2 using the grub-mkfont command, or get them already made from somewhere, such as a website or repository.
 This didn't seem to work yet, at least not for me the last time I tried.
I get 'error: Invalid font magic'.

Link to more info: gfxterm - GRUB Wiki

Here's an interesting link: GRUB Graphical Menu Development Journal -  grub.gibibit.com



freebsd

freebsd FILE [OPTS] [ARGS...] 
  -  Load a freebsd kernel.
 


freebsd_loadenv
freebsd_loadenv FILE
 - Load freebsd env.



freedsb_module

freebsd_module [FILE [type=module_type] [ARGS...]]
 


gptsync
Usage: gptsync DEVICE [PARTITION[+/-[TYPE]]] ...
Fill hybrid MBR of GPT drive DEVICE, specified partitions will be a part of hybrid mbr. Up to 3 partitions are allowed.
TYPE is am MBR type, + means that partition is active. Only one partition can be active.

You probably need to insert the gptsync module before you can use gptsync, see insmod.



halt

 -  shuts down the computer immediately, if possible using APM

  -n --no-apm         do not use APM to halt the computer

 What is 'APM'? -  Advanced Power Management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



handler [class [handler]]
 List or select a class handler



hdparm

Usage: hdparm [OPTIONS] DISK
Get/set ATA disk parameters
-B, --apm
set Advnaced Power Management
(1=low, ..., 254=high,  255=off)
-C, --power
check power mode
-F, --security-freeze
freeze ATA security settings until reset
-H, --health
check SMART health status
-M, --aam
set Automatic Acoustic Management
(0=off,   128=quiet, ..., 254=fast
-S, --standby-timeout
set standby timeout
(0=off,   1=5s, 2=10s, ..., 240=20m, 241=30m, ...)
-y, --standby
set drive to standby mode
-Y, --sleep
set drive to sleep mode
-i, --identify
print drive identity and settings
-I, --dumpid
    --smart
dump contents of ATA IDENTIFY sector
disable/enable SMART (0/1)
-q, --quiet
do not print messages
-h, --help
display this help and exit
-u, --usage
display the usage of this help and exit

You probably need to insert the hdparm module before you can use hdparm, see insmod.

 example,
grub>  hdparm -H (hd0)
error: ATA pass through not available
 I'm not too sure if I'm doing this right yet, there must be something more I don't know.




hello

  - prints 'Hello World'
example,
grub> hello
Hello World



help

help [PATTERN]  

If you just type 'help' by itself, it will just show you a list of available commands.

If you want to find out about one of those commands, type 'help <name-of-command>'.

For example, 'help echo', will give you more information about the 'echo' command.

If you type 'help help', you can get more information about the 'help' command.

The 'help' command is useful for reminding us what each command is used for, the proper syntax for using the command with options, and what options are available.
 
TIP: The 'help' command is the most important command in this whole page because if you can use the help command it will help you find out how to use all the rest of them.

example,
grub> help date
Usage: date [[year-] month-day] [hour:minute[:second]
Command to display/set the current datetime





hexdump

hexdump [options] file or device  
- hexdump [ -s offset ] [-n length] { FILE | (mem) }
* Dump the contents of a file or memory.
-s offset    --skip offset skip offset bytes from the beginning of file
-n length  --length length read only length bytes

Example: Print the MBR on screen,
hexdump (hd0)0+1



initrd

initrd FILE
- Load an initrd.img

Example,
initrd     /initrd.img
An initrd.img is a file used to help the kernel get started.
We normally load the kernel with the linux command first before we use the initrd command to load the initrd.img which matches the kernel.

 Please read this link: initrd - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



initrd16

  The name implies it's probably related to another command: linux16, see linux16 .



insmod

insmod MODULE
-  Insert a module.
The various instructions for GRUB2 are either built-in, or implemented as external modules, which have to be loaded before use.
  • The argument can be either a file or a module name.
  • The required disk, partition and filesystem modules required to read the modules on disk should be already loaded (or preloaded in core.img) in order to be able to load extra modules from disk.
  • If a module is specified by it's name, the matching filename is searched in the folder pointed by the variable prefix (like (hd0,1)/boot/grub/).
example,
insmod /boot/grub/play.mod

(Read the (7)grub_modules page).



keystatus

Usage: keystatus [--shift] [--ctrl]  [--alt]
 Check key modifier status
-s, --shift
check Shift key
-c, --ctrl
check Control key
-a, --alt
check Alt key
-h, --help
display this help and exit
-u, --usage
display this usage and exit

You probably need to insert the keystatus module before you can use keystatus, see insmod


linux

linux  FILE [ARGS...] 
 -  Load a Linux kernel - Load a linux kernel. [_linux]

example,
linux     /vmlinux root=/dev/sda1 ro quiet splash 



linux16
 For loading special kinds of kernels that the regular linux command, (above) doesn't cater for, such as 16-bit (b)zImage images like memtest86+.
 
One example of the use of the linux16 command is here: Run From GRUB2 - (PLOP Boot Manager).

 For a second example, here is how to boot a floppy disk image from GRUB2.
For the full context see HOWTO: Flash BIOS, The Ubuntu Way - ciscosurfer - Ubuntu Web Forums,
linux16 (hd0,1)/boot/memdisk
initrd16 (hd0,1)/boot/biosupdate.img
boot

 There is also a multiboot compliant kernel game, http://erikyyy.de/invaders/
 


 loadfont
 
First you might need to use the ls command (below), to find a font file in your hard disk drive.
See also, How to Change the GRUB Menu Font .

example,
loadfont (hd1,6)/boot/grub/walshes.pf2

You may use the lsfonts command (further below), to see if it worked. The lsfonts command will give you a list of  the fonts currently loaded.

I tried using the set command to see if I would be able to actually change the font that appears in the CLI Mode GRUB or in the GRUB Menu, but so far I have not been successful. Probably it's my own fault.
I hope to have an update for this sometime soon.



ls

ls [-1| -h|-a] [FILE]
 List devices and files
-l, --long  show a long list with more detailed information
 -h, --human-readable
print sizes in a human readable format
-a, --all
list all files
--help
list this help and exit
-u, --usage
display the usage of this command and exit

 The ls command is one of the first commands to try if you want to use GRUB to take a look around inside a computer. When you know what's there you can decide what you want to try to boot.

If given no options, ls lists all the devices currently known to the BIOS in the computer,
ls
 (hd0) (hd0,0) (hd0,1)  (hd0,2)  (hd0,3)  (hd0,5)  (hd0,6)  (hd1)  (hd1,1) (hd1,5)
(fd0)

When given the path and name of a partition, ls can display information about the file system,
ls -lh (hd0,1)
         Partition hd0,1: Filesystem type ext2, Label OCZ-KARMIC, Last modification time 2009-12-28 07:59:36 Monday, UUID
2ee1e3a3-f03a-4690-8310-7c3236786563

When given the path and name of a directory, ls can list the contents,
ls -lh (hd0,1)/
DIR
2009-11-24
19:03:59
Tuesday
lost+found/
DIR
2009-10-28
21:02:21
Wednesday
var/
DIR
2009-10-28
20:17:21
Sunday
etc/
DIR
2009-12-27
07:29:22
Sunday media/
DIR 2009-12-12
00:02:15
Saturday bin/
DIR 2009-12-27
07:57:52
Sunday boot/
DIR 2009-11-24 19:12:53
Tuesday dev/
DIR 2009-11-24 19:12:42
Tuesday home/
DIR 2009-12-27 07:34:55
Sunday lib/
DIR 2009-10-20 00:04:56
Tuesday mnt/
DIR 2009-10-28 20:55:17
Wednesday opt/
DIR 2009-10-20 00:04:56
Tuesday proc/
DIR 2009-12-12 19:39:00
Saturday root/
DIR 2009-12-27 07:34:55
Sunday sbin/
DIR 2009-10-19 23:05:22
Monday
selinux/
DIR 2009-10-28 20:55:17
Wednesday srv/
DIR 2009-10-19 15:18:00
Monday sys/
DIR 2009-12-27 20:17:21
Sunday tmp/
DIR 2009-12-27 07:57:27
Sunday usr/
3.71M
2009-12-05 23:34:07
Saturday vmlinuz
7.29M
2009-12-05 23:34:07
Saturday initrd.img
7.29M
2009-11-24 20:02:35
Tuesday initrd.img.old
3.71M
2009-11-24 20:02:35
Tuesday vmlinuz.old

As you can see from the information listed above, we have found a Linux operating system.




lsfonts
 List the loaded fonts



lspci

 - List all PCI devices. [lspci] The output looks like "00:00.0 8086:27a0.0 Device Class".

example output,
grub> lspci
00:00.0 1106:3148 Host Bridge

00:01.0 1106:b091 PCI-PCI Bridge

00:0b.0 11c1:044cc Communication controller
00:10.0 1106:3038 Serial Bus Controller
00:10.1 1106:3038 Serial Bus Controller
00:10.2 1106:3038 Serial Bus Controller
00:10.3 1106:3104 Serial Bus Controller
00:10.0 1106:3177 ISA Bridge
00:10.0 1106:0571 IDE Controller

00:10.0 1106:3059 Multimedia Audio Device
00:10.0 1106:3065 Ethernet Controller
00:10.0 1106:9696 VGA Controller



loopback

loopback  [-d| -p] DEVICENAME FILE
 - Make a device from a file  
 - Loopback allows mounting a file as if it were a disk (i.e turn a disk image in a virtual device).
check the loopback command implemented by this module, in (5)grub.cfg)

Here's a web page about how to use the loopback command to boot an .iso file containing a bootable Linux CD image when the bootable .iso is located in a hard drive,  
Boot an ISO via Grub2 - Mika's Blog

See also,
MultiBoot USB with Grub2 (boot directly from iso files) - panticz - thanks pxwpxw for the link.

I tried following the example in Mika's Blog and I was able to get that to work.
I used a parted magic live cd instead of grml though.
I copied my parted magic live cd .iso file into my /boot partition first, to make the file path simpler. (I'm using a separate /boot because I have a LUKS encrypted LVM / file system).

Then I rebooted and entered CLI Mode GRUB and ...

loopback loop (hd2,5)/pmagic-3.4.iso
Where: my /boot partition, or the partition I stored the .iso file in is 3rd hard disk, partition 5.

linux (loop)/pmagic/bzImage isofrom=/dev/sdc5/pmagic-3.4.iso root=/dev/ram0 livecd boot=live quiet vga=791 noeject noprompt sleep=0 tmpfs_size=220M ramdisk_size=25000
Where: the partition I stored the .iso file in is /dev/sdc5

TIP:
For the special kernel boot options, mount the .iso beforehand and take a look around for the Live CD's boot loader. Look for a folder called 'grub' or 'isolinux', most CDs use isolinux, but a few use GRUB. Look for a menu.lst or grub.cfg file or a file called isolinux.cfg, you will find boot entries in those files which use all kinds of special boot options. You can note down the options you like and use the same options now.
 
initrd   (loop)/pmagic/initrd

boot

This booted the .iso file from my hard disk drive and now the entire Parted Magic is running in RAM!   Success is sweet!

  I did it, can you?



lsmod

lsmod 
- List modules
- The various instructions for GRUB2 are either built-in, or implemented as external modules, which have to be loaded before use.
                                                                   (Read the (7)grub_modules page).
example,
grub> lsmod
Name     Ref   Count   Dependencies
tga      1             bitmap
terminal           1          normal
vbe      1             video
gfxterm  1             font,normal,bitmps,video
bitmap   4
video    4
font     3              normal
_chain   1
biosdisk            1
pc       1
reiserfs            2
fshelp   3 



module

module  FILE [ARGS...] 
                                                                     (Read the (7)grub_modules page).
GRUB2 has a modular design, so we can add new modules or upgrade old modules to add more functionality.
 Each module is designed to perform some function.
There are modules for each command, modules for the video diplay, understanding file systems, providing the fonts, and so on. These modules can be 'inserted' when needed.
If you're trying to do something in GRUB and you get an error 'not loaded', try using the insmod command to insert the module amd then try the command again, see insmod



multiboot

 - Load a multiboot kernel - Load a Multiboot kernel. [_multiboot]



netbsd

netbsd   FILE [OPTS]



openbsd

openbsd FILE [OPTS



parser.sh
 Set active handler



parser.rescue

 Set active handler



play

play  FILE
 - Play a sound - you need to specify some kind of a sound file which you may have stored in your computer somewhere, (in a file system).
 - I don't know if it plays .ogg music or mp3 or some other sound format ?
 - so far I can get it to make beeps from the motherboard speaker
 - maybe for newer computer with better motherboard speakers ?
 


read

read  [ENVVAR]
 - read an environmental variable



reboot

 - reboot



rescue

 -  Enter rescue mode - Go into the rescue mode.



rmmod

rmmod  - Remove a module - Remove (unload) a module.  (Read the (7)grub_modules page).



search

search [-f | -l | -s] NAME   
 - Search devices 
-f by  filename
-l by filesystem label
-s



  Examples,
search -l INTREPID 
hd0,2

search -f /boot/grub/menu.lst
hd0,2 hd0,3 hd0,5

search -f /boot/grub/grub.conf

hd0,2



serial
  
serial [-f|-l|-s] NAME
 -  Configure a serial port.
-u, --unit Set the serial port unit
-p, --port   Set the serial port unit
-s --speed Set the serial port speed
-w --word Set the serial port word
-r --parity Set the serial port parity
-t --stop Set the serial port stop bits
-h --help help
--usage serial [OPTIONS...]
 
 Here's a link for those who aren't sure what a serial port is, Serial Port - wikipedia



set

set   [ENVAR=VALUE]
When no options are specified, this command lists the  environmental variables  you have presently in place.
example:
grub> set
?=0
color_highlight=magenta/black
default=0
gfxmode=640x480
prefix=(hd0,2)/boot/grub
root=hd0,2)

If an option is specified, this command can set a variable -   var=value ...... - Set a variable

An 'environmental variable' is something like the normal foreground/background colors for your menu and the highlight foreground/background colors.
If you're displaying a splashimage, you can use only use black for your background (second) color, especially for the 'normal' two colors, because black means transparent. Colors will hide the splashimage.
eg color_normal anycolor/black anycolor/anycolor
Where: 'anycolor' means any color from the list of available colors.
Colors we can choose from include, black (meaning transparent), blue, green, cyan, red, magenta, brown, light-gray, dark-gray, light-blue, light-green, light-cyan, light-red, light-magenta, yellow, white.
 white blue magenta cyan
 light-gray yellow red light-magenta
 dark-gray green light-blue light-red
 black light-cyan light-green brown

example,
grub> set color_normal=red/green



This has caused my GRUB 'environment' to be changed.

Another environmental variable we can set is 'pager=1',
grub> set pager=1
this setting is useful when we're using commands that produce a lot of text on the screen. Normally the text will scroll up our monitors out of control and disappear off the top of the screen before we have time to take in the information.  Sometimes the pause key will work to hold the text, but more often not. With the pager=1 setting, we can control it and view one page at a time.

The opposite of set is unset.



sleep

sleep  NUMBER_OF_SECONDS
 - sleep [-v] [-i] NUMBER_OF_SECONDS
* Wait for a specified number of seconds. [sleep]
-v, --verbose Verbose Countdown (display remaining seconds during count down)
-i, --interruptible Countdown is interruptible by pressing escape key

example output,
sleep -v 10

 type 'sleep 10', and nothing appears on the screen for 10 seconds

 type 'sleep -v 10', and you will see the number of seconds displayed counting down from 10 to 0.

 type 'sleep -i -v10',  and you can press your 'Esc' key at any time to return to your main boot menu.

I imagine the sleep function should be useful for setting your computer to wait for some amount of time before booting up, or having GRUB run some other command(s).



source

source  FILE 
 - Load another config file without changing context.



terminal

terminal  [TERM...]  
Prints what terminals are available and which one you're using right now.
example output,
Available terminal(s): gfxterm console
Current terminal: gfxterm



terminfo

terminfo  [TERM
 -Set terminfo type



test

test  EXPRESSION  
 - evaluate an expression



unset

unset [VAR]  
 - Unset an environmental variable

Another way to unset an environmental variable when in Command Line Mode is to chainload the same GRUB by it's own MBR or boot sector. See the chainloader command.



usb
- Test USB support



vbeinfo

List compatible VESA BIOS extension video modes. [vbeinfo @i386]

This command is the recommended command for finding out what will be the maximum resolution we can set for our display, and and therefore determines the size of our splashimages.

 TIP: This command, (and a few of the other commands), will cause about three pages of text to go scrolling up the monitor screen faster than most humans can read. You may use your 'pause' key to pause the scrolling and take your time to read the text. When ready, just press 'enter' for the next page of text to scroll up.
Another idea is to use the set command, set pager=1



vbetest

Test VESA BIOS Extension 2.0+ support. [vbetest @i386]
The mode to test is specified in variable $vbe_mode, which defaults to 0x101 (640x480 8bpp) jpeg file format restriction : unknown (8-bit precision only ?).



videotest

Test video subsystem. [videotest]
To set the screen resolution, you should set the variable $vbe_mode before loading vbe and/or gfxmterm
(default mode is 0x101 i.e. 640x480 8bpp) Test your graphics 

- I entered the command by itself - nothing happened (black screen) until I pressed 'enter', then some colored squares appear.
Any key cancels. - have to 'Ctrl'+'Alt'+'Del' to reboot.









ARGS
- arguements, like options - kernel options,
 external link: BootOptions - Ubuntu Community Docs
 also: Kernel Parameters - list of kernel boot parameters - kernel.org


DEVICENAME
-
Linux device names are like /dev/sda1
or use the GRUB device naming syntax like (hd0,1)


EXPRESSION - see regex (7) manpage - Ubuntu Manuals
or see Bio::DB::Expression.3pm - Ubuntu Manuals

ENVAR - short for environmental variable - wikipedia

For example,     
variable=value
0=?
color_highlight=yellow/blue
color_normal=red/green
gfxmode=640x480
prefix =(hd0,2)/boot/grub
root =(hd0,2)
default=0
pager
=1
 
Colors we can choose from include, black (meaning transparent), blue, green, cyan, red, magenta, brown, light-gray, dark-gray, light-blue, light-green, light-cyan, light-red, light-magenta, yellow, white.
 white blue magenta cyan
 light-gray yellow red light-magenta
 dark-gray green light-blue light-red
 black light-cyan light-green brown




FILE
- there are two ways to specify a file,
An 'absolute file name' just means the device name (in GRUB terms, like : (hd0,1), followed by the path to a file, and the filename.

An example of an 'absolute file name' would be: (hd0,1)/boot/grub/grub.cfg

You can specify the '(hd0,1)' part of it every time to be sure, but if you're feeling a little bit lazy and you leave that bit out, GRUB will assume you're referring to the '/boot/grub/grub.cfg' in whatever device GRUB currently has set as it's 'root' device.


A 'blocklist', on the other hand, is capable of  describing the physical location of code or data on  'raw' areas of the disk, (not addressed by any file system), and areas that are addressed by a file system as well. It's kind of like putting GRUB in four-wheel drive. GRUB can go anywhere.
This might also be useful if you want to tell GRUB the location of a file that happens to be in a file system that GRUB doesn't recognize, such as NTFS. (Maybe there's an image of a boot sector you left in there that you now decided you suddenly need as a device to boot from, or something unusual like that).

A simple example of a blocklist would be: (hd0)0+1 , that would indicate the beginning of sector 0 (zero), and the space following it for 1 (one) sector.

Blocklist format is already explained pretty well in the GNU GRUB (Legacy) Manual, 13.3.1 blocklist  - GNU GRUB  Manual 0.97.


Source: - 11 Filesystem syntax and semantics -GNU GRUB Manual 0.97



LABEL
 - disk label or file system label. You can 'label' your file systems with commands like e2label, reiserfstune with the -l option, and other commands for various other file systems.
If you use Gnome Partition Editor, aka 'GParted', you can do this from the right-click menu.
It's very handy to have your file systems labeled, especially if you have several of them.
It's also extremely convenient to have your USB flash memory disks file systems labelled too.


PATTERN
- for the 'help' command you're supposed to type the name of another command after it which you would like to find out more information about.


MODULE
-  Most commands are only available when the corresponding module is loaded (except built-in commands). The various instructions for GRUB2 are either built-in, or implemented as external modules, which have to be loaded before use.  lsmod

Here's a list of modules in my /boot/grub/,
915resolution.mod




acpi.mod affs.mod afs_be.mod afs.mod aout.mod ata.mod
ata_pthru.mod at_keyboard.mod



befs_be.mod
befs.mod biosdisk.mod bitmap.mod blocklist.mod boot.mod
bsd.mod bufio.mod



cat.mod cpuid.mod crc.mod cmp.mod configfile.mod cpio.mod
chain.mod




datehook.mod date.mod datetime.mod dm_nv.mod drivemap.mod
echo.mod efiemu.mod elf.mod ext2.mod extcmd.mod
fat.mod font.mod fs_file.mod fshelp.mod fs_uuid.mod
gfxterm.mod gptsync.mod gzio.mod


handler.mod halt.mod hdparm.mod hello.mod help.mod hexdump.mod
hfs.mod hfsplus.mod



iso9660.mod




jfs.mod jpeg.mod



keystatus.mod




loopback.mod lsmmap.mod ls.mod lspci.mod lvm.mod linux16.mod
linux.mod loadenv.mod



memdisk.mod mdraid.mod memrw.mod minicmd.mod minix.mod mmap.mod
msdospart.mod multiboot.mod



ntfscomp.mod normal.mod ntfs.mod


ohci.mod




part_msdos.mod part_apple.mod part_gpt.mod part_sun.mod part_amiga.mod parttool.mod
password.mod pci.mod play.mod png.mod probe.mod part_acorn.mod
pxecmd.mod
pxe.mod



raid5rec.mod raid6rec.mod raid.mod read.mod reboot.mod reiserfs.mod
serial.mod search.mod setjmp.mod sfs.mod sh.mod sleep.mod
scsi.mod




tar.mod terminfo.mod test.mod tga.mod true.mod
udf.mod          
ufs1.mod ufs2.mod uhci.mod usb_keyboard.mod usb.mod
usbms.mod usbtest.mod



vbeinfo.mod vbe.mod vbetest.mod vga.mod vga_text.mod video_fb.mod
video.mod videotest.mod



xfs.mod xnu.mod xnu_uuid.mod


zfs.mod zfsinfo.mod



(Read the (7)grub_modulespage)                                       



NAME -


OPTIONS
-


TERM -


VAR -


VALUE -